Additional Terms A through F

ATC.
Athletic trainer certified; an athletic trainer with this designation has passed the certification exam administered by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association.
Abduct.
Movement of any extremity away from the midline of the body.
Abrasion.
Any injury that rubs off the surface of the skin.
Abscess.
An infection that produces pus; it can be the result of a blister, callus, penetrating wound or laceration.
Adhesion.
Abnormal adherence of collagen fibers to surrounding structures.
Aerobic.
Exercise in which energy needed is supplied by oxygen.
Anaerobic.
Exercise without the use of oxygen as an energy source; short bursts of vigorous exercise.
Anaphylactic Shock.
Shock that is caused by an allergic reaction.
Anterior.
In front of or on the front surface of.
Anterior Compartment Syndrome.
Swelling in the lower leg that jeopardizes the viability of the muscles, nerves and arteries that serve the foot. In severe cases, emergency surgery is necessary to relieve the swelling and pressure.
Anti-Inflammatory.
Any agent that prevents inflammation, such as aspirin or ibuprofen.
Aspiration.
The withdrawal of fluid from the body by means of a suction-type device.
Asymptomatic.
Without symptoms.
Atrophy.
To shrivel or shrink from disuse, as in muscular atrophy.
Avulsion.
The forcible tearing away of a body part or structure.
Axilla.
The armpit.
Bennett’s Fracture.
A fracture or dislocation at the base of the thumb.
Bruise.
A discoloration of the skin as a result of an extravasation of blood into the underlying tissues.
Bursa.
A fluid-filled sac located in areas of the body where friction is likely to occur, for example between a tendon and the underlying bone.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR).
Artificial establishment of blood circulation and movement of air into the lungs.
Calf.
Large muscle group, consisting of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, located at the back of the shin. The calf is connected to the heel by the Achilles tendon. This muscle is responsible for foot plantarflexion and is instrumental in jumping.
Capsule.
A structure consisting of ligaments that surround and stabilize a joint.
Carbohydrate/Electrolyte Drink.
Sports drink, such as Gatorade, that provides carbohydrate to muscles and replaces fluids and electrolytes (sodium, potassium) lost in sweat.
Cartilage.
Smooth, slippery substance preventing the ends of bones from rubbing together.
Cervical Vertebrae.
Group of seven vertebrae located in the neck.
Charley Horse.
A contusion or bruise to a muscle resulting in intramuscular bleeding. No other injury should be called a charley horse.
Cold Pack.
A pack of natural or synthetic ice that is applied to minimize blood flow in an injured area.
Collagen.
Substance existing in commonly injured tissues of the body, including skin, cartilage, ligaments and bone.
Colles’ Fracture.
A fracture of the distal end of the radius.
Concentric Muscle Contraction.
A shortening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to move a resistance.
Concussion.
Jarring injury of the brain.
Congenital.
Existing before birth; to be born with.
Contusion.
A tissue injury caused by a direct blow.
Costochondral.
Cartilage that separates the bones of the rib cage.
Cranium.
Bony framework of the head consisting of eight cranial bones and 14 bones of the face and teeth.
Cyst.
Abnormal sac containing liquid or semisolid matter.
Dehydration.
State resulting from loss of body fluid where fluid output (sweating) exceeds fluid intake.
Distal.
Term describing the location of one anatomical body part that is farther away from the midline of the body than another. For example, the hand is distal to the elbow.
Dorsiflexion.
Ankle motion in which the foot and toes are moved away from the ground in an upward fashion.
Eccentric Muscle Contraction.
An overall lengthening of a muscle as it develops tension and contracts against resistance.
Eccymosis.
Bleeding into the surface tissue below the skin.
-Ectomy.
Suffix connoting surgical removal of the affected part. For example, an appendectomy.
Electrical Galvanic Stimulation (EGS).
An electrical therapeutic modality that sends current through the body at selected voltages and frequencies. Often used to control pain and swelling.
Electrolytes.
Ionized salts in blood, tissue fluids and cells, including sodium, potassium and chlorine.
Electromyogram (EMG).
Test to determine nerve function.
Ethyl Chloride.
Cold spray. A chemical coolant sprayed onto an injury site to produce a local, mild anesthesia.
Etiology.
Study of the causes of injury and disease.
Eversion.
Action of the ankle turning outward.
Extension.
Action of straightening a joint as achieved by an extensor muscle.
External Rotation.
Lateral movement of a joint or extremity.
Fascia.
A sheath of fat and fibrous tissue that connects skin to the underlying tissues.
Fat Percentage.
The amount of body weight that is adipose or fat tissue. Fat percentage can be calculated by underwater weighing, measuring select skinfold thickness or by analyzing electrical impedance.
Flexibility.
The ability of a muscle to relax and yield to stretch forces.
Flexibility Exercise.
General term used to describe activities performed to passively or actively elongate soft tissue.
Flexion.
Motion of bending a joint as achieved by a flexor muscle.
Gatorade is the recommended
Sports Drink of the NBATA